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園林植物防除雜草有哪些好方法?

發布時間: 2020-09-17 15:27 信息來源: 湖南省林業局政府網站 責任編輯: 中國花卉報 點擊量: 1

園林植物防除雜草有哪些好方法?

近日,在《中國花卉報》直播平臺,四川國光運動及觀賞草坪研究所高級研究員毛國平,與大家分享了 “園林植物雜草防控技術”。

“干貨滿滿!”不少觀眾發出感慨,并積極提出問題,與嘉賓互動。

這是《中國花卉報》與四川國光合作系列直播欄目“園林植保技術大講堂”的第五講,在2020年,每個月都會有一期直播。

01園林雜草的分類及危害特點

yuanlinzacaobaokuoyinianshengzacaoheduonianshengzacao,genjuchucaojifangchuduixiang,huanfenweihebenke、shacaokehekuoxiecaodeng。yinianshenghebenkezacaobaokuoniujincao、gouweicao、matang、baicaodeng;duonianshenghebenkezacaobaokuopudili、baimao、shuangsuiquebai、luweideng;shacaokezacaobaokuoxiangfuzi、suimishacao、shuiwugongdeng。

kuoxieleizacaochangjiandeyoujuke、like、xianke、shizihuake、jincaike、qiancaoke、douke、machixianke、zuojiangcaoke、sanxingke、dajike、xuancanke、shizhuke、liaoke、qiekedeng。yinianshengkuoxiezacaoruxiaofeipeng、yetonghaodeng,duonianshengkuoxiezacaoruciercai、kongxinlianzicao、tianhusui、dijindeng。

zacaohuiyingxiangyuanlinjingguanpinzhiheguanshangxiaoguo,huichengweibingchonghaidezhongjianjizhu,zacaoyuyuanlinzhiwuzhengkongjian、zhengshuifei,yingxiangguanghezuoyong,yanzhongyingxiangzhiwushengchang,weihaiyanzhonghuidaozhicaopingxiaoshi、miaomusiwang。

zacaotongchangzhongzishuliangduo,shoumingchang,huanjuyouxiumianxing,chumiao、chengshuqicanchabuqi,chuanbohefanzhifangshiduoyangdengtedian。

yizhumatangzhongziliangkeda1.3wanli,lidezhongzikeda1.8wanli,machixiankeda5.2wanli,niujincaokeda5-13wanli,haokeda81wanli。

yeyanmai、zaoshuhe、jingouwei、langweicao、machixian、qicai、zeqi、xiancaidezhongzikecunhuo10nianyishang;liao、longkui、yangti、cheqian、jidezhongzikecunhuo30nianyishang;fanzhixian、tuncao、duxingcaidengdezhongzikecunhuo40nianyishang;gouweicaodeshoumingkeda739nian,fanlvdezhongzikecunhuo622nian,lidezhongzizuichangkezaiturangzhongdecunhuo1700nian。

qicai、li、dawanhuadeng,jishizhongziweiwanquanchengshuyejuyoumengfanengli,bingnengchangchengxindezhizhu;henduozacaocongturangzhongbachuhou,qizhizhushangdezhongzirengnengjixuchengshu;henduozacaozhongzichengshuluodihoubulijifaya,eryaojingguoyidingshijiandexiumianqicainengfaya,yimianluodilijichumiaoyushangbuliangtianqiermiezhong;binlishiyizhongnaiyanxingzacao,nengjiechu3zhongleixingdezhongzi,shangcengdelidachenghese,dangnianjikemengfa。zhongcengdelixiao,heisehuoqinghuise,yiniancaikemengfa。xiacengdezhongzizuixiao,heise,yaodisanniancainengmengfa;lihecangeryeyouleisideqingxing。

dabufenzacaochumiaobuzhengqi,ruqicai、xiaolideng,chuzuilengde1zhi2yuehezuirede7zhi8yue,yiniansijidounengchumiao、kaihua;fanlvzaidiwen—3℃xiarengrankeyimengfa;yourumatang、lvgouwei、machixian、niujincaozaimouxiediqucong4yuezhongxunkaishichumiao,yizhiyanxudao9yue,xianchumiaode6yuexiaxunkaihuajieguo,xianhouxiangcha4geyue。henduozacaoruniufanlv、dachaocaishuwuxianhuaxu,cong4yueshangxunkaihuayizhidao6yueshangxun,yibiankaihuayibianjieguo,keyanxusansigeyue。youyuzacaokaihua、zhongzichengshudeshijianyanxuhenchang,zaoshudezhongzizaoluodi,wanshudewanluodi,yinciqixiumian、mengfayehenbuzhengqi。

youxiezacaobudannengchanshengdaliangzhongzi,huanjuyouwuxingfanzhidenengli: jumaicai、xiaoji、daji、tianxuanhuadengkejinxinggenbofanzhi;gouyagen、niumaozhan、yanzicaidengkejinxinggenjingfanzhi;gouyagen、shuangsuiquebaidengkejinxingpufufanzhi;shuishacao、xiangfuzidengkejinxingkuaijingfanzhi;langweicao、jianmaodengkejinxingxugenfanzhi;yecigudengkejinxingqiujingfanzhi。lingwai,yanzicaihuankeyitongguojizhuayajinxingfanzhideng。

maoguopingjieshao,chucaofangshibaokuowuli(rengong、jixie)chucaohehuaxuechucao。huaxuechucaozhiliyonghuaxueyaojitongguopenwudengshouduanlaikongzhiheshasizacao。

“wulichucaohehuaxuechucaogeyouyouquedian。”maoguopingshuo,rengongbacaoduicaopinganquanxinggao,yeshibufenexingzacaodejiejuecuoshi。danbacaozhezhongfangfakongcaoshijianduan,chengbenhengao,muqiandadaomeinianmeipingfangmi2yuanzhi4yuan。huaxuechucaochengbenxiangduidi,meinianmeipingfangmi0.3yuanzhi0.8yuan,danjishuyaoqiugao,shiyongbudangkenenghuichanshengyaohai,bunengjiejuesuoyouexingzacao。

02如何選擇正確的除草劑?

chucaojianzuoyongfangshifenweiturangchulijijijingxiechuliji。shiyongturangchulijibuyingxiangjingguan,duihebenkezacaoxiaoguohao,danduiduonianshengzacaowuxiao;jingxiechulijizhenduixingqiang,duiduonianshengzacaoyouxiao,danhuiyingxiangjingguan、chixushijianyouxiao,huankenengshanghaiyuanlinzhiwu。

chucaojianzuoyongxingzhifenwei: mieshengxingchucaojihexuanzexingchucaoji。

maoguopingqiangdiao,chucaojidexuanzexingbushijueduide,ershixiangduide,xuanzexingchucaojibushiduisuobaohudezhiwuyidiandoumeiyouyingxiang,ershizaiyidingduixiang、yongyaoliang、yongyaoshijian、yongyaofangfahehuanjingtiaojianxiadexuanzexing。rugeerzaiqiwen25℃yishang,yongliang20ml/100m2(300x)jikewanquanshasijianguying,jiangdiyongliangzekeanquanfangchujianguyingzhongdekuoxiezacao。

yuanlinchucaojixuanyongyuanze: 1.genjubutongdeyuanlinzhiwuxuanzeanquandechucaoji;2.genjuzacaodebutongshengchangshiqixuanzeheshidechucaoji;3.genjuzacaodezhongleijipinzhongxuanzeyouxiaochucaoji。maoguopingqiangdiao,xuanzechucaojiyaoyianquanyouxiaoweiyuanze,meiyouyongyaojingyanhuodiyicishiyong,qingxianshihouyong;butongzacaoxuyaoxuanyongbutongdechucaojizhenduichucao。

zaizhibozhong,maoguopingjieshaolelengjixingcaopingchucaofangan、nuanjixingcaopingchucaotaocan、huahuidibeichucaofanganyijimiaomulvlichucaofangan。

03如何確定除草劑的使用劑量

maoguopingjieshao,mieshengxingchucaojiyongyaoliangyueda,xiaoguoyuehao,erxuanzexingchucaojiyongliangguoda,huichanshengyaohai。

yizhongyaojizaizacaobutongshiqiyongyaoliangbuyiyang,zacaoyuexiao,yongliangyueshao,xiaoguoyuehao,yaogenjupenyaoqixiejiyongyaoxiguanquedingpeiyaoliang。

04使用除草劑注意事項

yaobaozhengyaojidexishijunyun。maoguopingshuo,peiyaoshiyongdeshuizhiduiyaoxiaodeyingxianghenda,daduoshuchucaojidoushiruosuanxinghuahewu,suoyiyinggaishiyongzhongxingzhiruosuanxingshuizhipeizhichucaoji,jianxingshuiyiyinqichucaojilizihua,congeryingxiangshiyongxiaoguo,huangxianniaolei(yipen)(zhuoer)shoushuizhisuanjianduyingxiangxiao。caoganlin(quansha)jicaoanlin(fencao)yutujieheshixiao,suoyibunengshiyonghunzhuodeshuipeizhiyaoye。 

penyaocaozuoyaojunyun,pentouzacao,buyaoloupen。

chucaojiyaoxiaofahuiyingxiangyinsubaokuoturangyinsuheqihouyinsu。turangyinsuhuanbaokuoturangzhidi、youjizhihanliang、turanghanshuiliang。turangzhidiyoushatu、rangtuheniantu,yaoxiaozaishatuzhongzuigao,yicidijian。zaiturangpinjitiaojianxia,turangfengbijiyongliangdiyenengfengbihenchangshijian,turangfeiwozeturangfengbijiyonglianggao,danyebuyidingnengfengbihenchangshijian。

jinruturangdechucaojizhiyouzaiturangzhongchuyurongjiezhuangtai,cainengbeizhiwuyouxiaoxishouerfahuizuoyong。turanghanshuiliangda,yaoxiaojiugao。zacaozhongzizaifayashixuyaodaliangdeshui,dangzhongzixishoushuishijiubarongjiezaishuizhongdechucaojixishoujintinei,yizhizhongzifayahuodaozhipeiyasiwang。

“hanchanggen,shichangya”,turanghanshuiliangshiyingxiangmiaohouchucaojiyaoxiaofahuidezhongyaoyinsu,weilegenghaodifahuijingxiechulijiyaoxiao,yingzaiyuhouqingtianshiyao ,yongyaoqianyitianjiaotoushui。shiyongjingxiechulijihou4xiaoshineixiayu,huoyongyaohousicaoqianchangshijianxiayuhuiyingxiangyaoxiao。

qixianghuanjingshiyingxiangyaoxiaodezhongyaoyinsu。fengdabuyishiyongchucaoji;yongyaohouxiayuhuiyingxiangjingxiechucaoxiaoguo,danyouzhuturangchulijifahuiyaoxiao;kongqishiduyuedaxiaoguoyuehao,diyu65%yingxiangyaoxiao,turangshiduyuedaxiaoguoyuehao;qiwenyuegaoyaoxiaoyuehao,danbuyiguogao,chucaojizuijiayongyaowenduzai20℃zhi30℃zhijian,10℃yixiabuyaoshiyong;yangguangchongzuyouzhuyaoxiaofahui,yongyaohouchangshijianyinyuhuozaishumudengzheyindedifang,chucaoxiaoguowangwangbuhao。

maoguopingzongjielechucaojishiyongyaodian: 1.xuanduiyao。yaoxiangxiaoguohao,peifanghenzhongyao(yufangweizhu,zhenduiyongyao)。2.yongliangzhunque。yongduoshaoliang,duiduoshaoshui,penduoshaomianjidouhenguanjian。3.yongyaojunyun。yongqianyaoyiyao,ercixishi,buzhongpen,buloupen。

maoguopingzongjielezacaofangchuyaodian: 1.turangfengbi——youxiaojianshaozhongzimengfa;2.zaoqichuli——jianshaogenjingmengfa,chucaochuxiao,jiangdiyongyaochengben;3.chixufangzhi——zonghezhili,jieheshiyong,dadaochangqidexiaoguo。

zaizhibozhong,maoguopingtixingdajia,yuanlinzhiwupinzhongzhongduo,qichucaojishiyongdejishushoupinzhong、diyu、huanjing、qihou、zaipeicuoshi、yongyaoshijian、yongyaojishudengduofangmianyingxiang。“suoyouchucaojideshiyongyidingshizaidangdixianxiaomianjishiyanchenggonghou,zaijinxingdamianjishiyong。” maoguopingqiangdiao。

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