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《民法典》: 中國集體林權制度改革的典范性準則

發布時間: 2020-10-09 10:19 信息來源: 亞博APP 責任編輯: 張紅霄 點擊量: 1

《民法典》: 中國集體林權制度改革的典范性準則

gaigekaifanghou,zhongguojitilinquanzhidugaigejinglilezhengceyufalvjiaohuyanjindeguocheng,jitilinyefazhanqudelejushizhumudechengjiu。dantongshi,40niangaigelichengjileileyinzhengcefalvquefayanxuxingyuxiediaoxingyinfadezhuduowenti,chengweilinquanzhutiliyichongtudezhiduyinsu。zheyixianxiangfanyinglejihuajingjixiangshichangjingjizhuanxingqizhidujianshedetedian,2014niandangdeshibajiesizhongquanhuitongguole《guanyuquanmiantuijinyifazhiguoruoganzhongdawentidejueding》,tichushehuizhuyishichangjingjibenzhishangshifazhijingji,shishichangzaiziyuanpeizhizhongqijuedingxingzuoyonghegenghaofahuizhengfuzuoyong,bixuyaowanshanshichangjingjifalvzhidu,shixianlifahegaigejuecexiangxianjie,duibushiyinggaigeyaoqiudefalvfagui,yaojishixiugaihefeizhi,cujinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihua。《minfadian》debanbuyushixingshizheyizhuanxingdezhongdabiaozhi。《minfadian》duigaigekaifangyilaizhidingdeyixilieminshangshidanxingfalvguifanjinxingzengjian、wanshanyuzhenghe,juyoudianfanxingdezhiduweijie: renhezhengceyufalvbudezuochujiansun《minfadian》guidingdegongmin、farenhefeifarenzuzhiquanlihuozengjiaqiyiwudeguiding,chuxianyu《minfadian》chongtudeguidingshi,yingyi《minfadian》weizhun。

《minfadian》gong7bian、1260tiao,zongze、wuquan、hetongdengsanbianshejijitilinquanjieding、liuzhuanyubaohu,gouchenglejitilinquanjibenfalvguifantixi。cong2021nian1yue1riqi,bansuizhujitilinquanzhidugaigelichengde《minfatongze》《wuquanfa》《danbaofa》《hetongfa》dengfalvjiangfeizhi,jinhoudelinyezhengce、linyelifayijizhengfuxingweibudeyu《minfadian》chongtu,duiyuyu《minfadian》guidingheyuanzebuyizhidexianxingguidingyinggaijinxingqingli,weilaidejiqinglide,zaishijianzhongyi《minfadian》weizhunze。

一、《民法典》為集體林權界定與保護提供了典范性準則

《minfadian》jiangnongcunjitilindisuoyouquandejuecequan、chengyuanquan、dailiquanfenbieshouyunongminjiti、nonghuhenongcunjitijingjizuzhi,bingfuyujiatingchengbaojitilindiwanbeidewuquantixi,duiqitajingyingzhutidejingyingquanjinxingwuquanyuzhaiquanqubiexingdefalvbaohu。

《minfadian》dierbailiushiyitiaoguidingjitilindi“shuyubenjitichengyuanjitisuoyou”,bingliejuchubaokuotudichengbaofanganzaineideyoujitichengyuanjuedingdeshixiang。zheyiguidingzaifalishangshuyuzongyouxingzhi,jijuecequanshuyutuanti,shiyongquanshuyuchengyuan。yejiushishuo,chengbaojitilindishinonghuzuoweijitichengyuandequanli,yinci,jishinonghujiangchengbaodelindijingyingquanliuzhuangeiqitajingyingzhuti,chengbaoquanrengshunonghu。《minfadian》jinyibujiejueshijianzhongyinnongcunjicengzuzhifalvdiweimohudaozhidequanzebuqingwenti,guidingnongcunjitijingjizuzhiyifaqudefarenzige(dijiushijiutiao),weishelicunjitijingjizuzhide、cunminweiyuanhuikeyiyifadaixingcunjitijingjizuzhidezhineng(diyibailingyitiao),nongcunjitijingjizuzhihuocunminweiyuandaibiaonongminjitixingshisuoyouquan(dierbailiushiertiao)。ji,nongcunjitijingjizuzhihuocunminweiyuanhuishinongminjitidefadingdailiren,qizhizeshibaohunongminjitijiqichengyuandehefaquanyibushoubaokuozishenzaineideqinhai,yinci,ruonongcunjitijingjizuzhi、cunminweiyuanhuihuozheqifuzerenzuochudejuedingqinhaijitichengyuanhefaquanyide,shouqinhaidejitichengyuankeyiqingqiufayuanyuyichexiao(dierbailiushiwutiao)。

《minfadian》duijiatingchengbaodelindijingyingquangeiyuwuquanbaohu,jitongguodengjixiangshirenxuangaochanquandeweiyixing(dierbaiyishiliutiao)。zaichengbaoqinei,nonghujikeyizizhujingying,yekeyiwuxunongcunjitijingjizuzhitongyicaiquhuhuan、zhuanrang、chuzu、ruguhuozheqitafangshixiangtarenliuzhuanlindijingyingquan(disanbaisanshisitiao、disanbaisanshijiutiao),huankeyizaizijijingyingdetongshiyilindichengbaojingyingquandiyadaikuan(disanbaijiushiwutiaohedisanbaijiushijiutiao),zhexiequanlikeyiduikangbaokuofabaorenzaineiderenherendeganyu: nongcunjitijingjizuzhibudeganshelindichengbaojingyingquanrenxingshiquanli(disanbaiershiliutiao),budediaozhengheshouhuichengbaodi(disanbaisanshiliutiao、disanbaisanshiqitiao)。

qitajingyingzhutitongguoyixiatujingqudejitilindidejingyingquan: yishichengbaonongcunjitijingjizuzhitongguozhaobiao、paimai、gongkaixieshangdengfangshifabaodejitilindi。duicileilindijingyingquan,《minfadian》caiquxuanzexingwuquanbaohu,jikeyishenqingwuquandengji,qudequanshuzhengshude,keyicaiquchuzu、rugudengfangshizaiciliuzhuanlindijingyingquan(disanbaisishiertiao),meiyoushenqingwuquandengjide,zeanzhaoliuzhuanhetongyuedingjinxingzhaiquanbaohu。ershiyihuhuan、zhuanrang、chuzu、rugudengfangshiqudejiatingchengbaolindidejingyingquan。huhuanyuzhuanrangdefalvxingzhishuyumaiduanmoukuaizongdizhenggechengbaoqidelindijingyingquan,dangshirenkeyishenqingwuquandengji(disanbaisanshiwutiao);caiquchuzu、rugudengfangshiliuzhuandelindijingyingquanyibanshuyuzhaiquan(disanbaisanshijiutiao),liuzhuanqixianweiwunianyishangde,keyishenqingwuquandengji(disanbaisishiyitiao),qifaliyijushichangqihetongxiangdangyuchanquanzhuanyi,yiwunianweijiezhuyaokaolvdeshigengdijingying,youyulindijingyingdechangqixing,zheyiguidingduilindideshiyongxinghuanxuyaozaishijianzhongjinyibujianyan。

二、《民法典》為集體林權流轉與保護提供了典范性準則

shouxian,《minfadian》weijitilinquanliuzhuanhetongshifouyouxiaotigonglefalvyijuyujiujitujing。shijianzhong,jitilinquanliuzhuandaduocaiqushifanhetong,qiedabufenshigeshitiaokuan。anzhao《minfadian》guiding,tigongshifanhetongdedifangzhengfujiqibumenyingcaiquhelidefangshitishiduiliuzhuanshuangfangyouzhongdalihaiguanxidetiaokuanbingyuyishuoming(disibaijiushiliutiao),ruguogeshitiaokuanyufeigeshitiaokuanbuyizhide,yinggaicaiyongfeigeshitiaokuan(disibaijiushibatiao)。hetongcunzaibuhelidimianchuhuozhejianqingyifangzeren、jiazhonglingyifangzerenhuopaichu、xianzhilingyifangzhuyaoquanlidetiaokuan,bujuyoufalvxiaoli(disibaijiushiqitiao)。ciwai,jitijingjizuzhihuocunminweiyuanhuizaimeiyoujingsanfenzhieryishangcunmindahuichengyuanhuocunmindaibiaotongyijiangjitilindiliuzhuangeiqitajingyingzhuti,shuyuchaoyuequanxiandinglidehetong,wuxiao(diwubailingsitiao);liuzhuanjiagehuojingyingshouyicunzaizhongdawujiehuoxianshigongpingshi,shousunhaifangyouquanqingqiufayuanhuozhezhongcaijigouyuyichexiao(diyibaisishiqitiao、diyibaiwushiyitiao)。

qici,《minfadian》weiyouxiaohetongdeqieshilvxingtigonglefalvyijuyujiujitujing。linquanliuzhuanshijianzhong,jianglindizhenggechengbaoqijingyingquanliuzhuangeitarendexianxiangbuduo,gengpubiandeshijiangbufenchengbaoqijingyingquanliuzhuangeitaren,qifalvxingzhishuyuzulin。zailinquanzulinhetonglvxingzhong,feihetongfangzhuzhanglindichanquan、chengzufangbuzhifujiakuandengxianxiangshierfasheng。feihetongfangzhuzhanglindichanquanwangwangshiyoubutongshiqidequanshuzhengshuyijilinquanzhengfafangcufangzaochengde,lilunshangkeyitongguosifatujingjiejue,dankaolvsifachengben,chengzufangyoushihuixuanzezhifufeihetongfangzujindefangshixishiningren。duici,《minfadian》tigonglegengduodejiujitujing: yindisanrenzhuzhangquanli,zhishichengzurenbunengduizulinwushiyong、shouyide,chengzurenkeyiqingqiujianshaozujinhuozhebuzhifuzujin(diqibaiershisantiao),zaichuzufangweinengtigongshidangdanbaoshizhongzhizhifuzujin(diliubaiyishisitiao)。chengzufangweinenganqizhifujiakuande,chuzufangkeyijinxingcuigao,zaiheliqineineichengzufangrengweizhifuzujinde,chuzufangkeyijiechuhetong,shouhuilindichengbaojingyingquan(diliubaisanshisitiao、diliubaisishiertiao)。

zongshangsuoshu,《minfadian》weijianquanjitilinquanzhidutixitigongledianfanxingfalvyiju,erqie,2008niankaishizaiquanguotuijindejitilinquanzhutigaigefuhe《minfadian》guanyujitilindisuoyouquanhelindichengbaojingyingquandeguiding,yiliuzhuan、diya、hezuoweineirongdepeitaogaigeshiweichengbaoquanyujingyingquanfenli,zouzaigengdisanquanfenzhigaigezhiqian。jinhou,jitilinquanzhidugaigeyingjinyibuluoshi《minfadian》lifajingshen,weijitilinyechixujiankangfazhantigonglianghaodezhiduhuanjing。

國家林業和草原局政府網 http://www.forestry.gov.cn/2020-09-29來源: 中國綠色時報

作者張紅霄系南京林業大學生態文明與鄉村振興研究中心主任、教授、博士生導師)

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